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What is a flame-retardant fabric? Understanding flame retardant fabrics
Jan 06, 2012

Fire, clothing, curtains, tablecloths and other fabrics are the most likely to cause fires to expand. With the progress of technology, more and more functional fabrics have been produced. Flame-retardant fabrics are one of them. The fabrics of these fabrics can effectively prevent fire due to their own characteristics. Firefighters' familiar firefighters' clothing is made of special flame-retardant fabrics. The following Xiao Bian talks about flame-retardant fabrics with everyone. I hope everyone has a comprehensive understanding of flame-retardant fabrics.

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What is flame retardant fabric

The so-called "flame-retardant" does not mean that the flame-retardant finished textile does not burn when it comes into contact with the fire source, but means that the fabric can reduce its flammability in the flame, slow down the propagation speed, and does not form a large-area burning; leaving the flame Afterwards, they can quickly extinguish themselves and no longer burn or smoldering. At present, the types of flame-retardant fabrics mainly include: flame-retardant polyester, flame-retardant nitrile-polyamide, flame-retardant vinylon, flame-retardant viscose, arylsulfone, glass fiber, polytetrafluoroethylene fiber, polyamide-imide fiber, poly Benzimidazole fibers, phenolic fibers, and the like.

The basic principle of flame retardant fabrics is to reduce the generation of flammable gases during the thermal decomposition process and hinder the basic reactions in the gas phase combustion process. Secondly, absorbing heat in the combustion zone, diluting and insulating the air also has a role in preventing combustion. At present, the main flame-retardant fabrics are: post-finishing flame-retardant fabrics, such as cotton, polyester-cotton, etc.; intrinsically flame-retardant fabrics, such as aramid, nitrile cotton, DuPont Kevlar, Nomex, Australia PR97 and so on.


Flame-retardant fabric classification:

First, flame-retardant fabrics can be divided into:

1. Permanent flame-retardant fabric (weaving with flame-retardant fiber, no matter how many times the water, fire-retardant effect does not change);

2. Washability (above 50 times) flame retardant fabric;

3. Semi-washable flame retardant fabric;

4. Disposable flame retardant fabrics (decoration, curtains, cushions, etc.).


Second, the production process of flame-retardant fabrics and the use of flame retardants are broadly divided into two types of flame-retardant fiber processing and fabric fire-retardant finishing:

Flame retardant treatment of fibers:

1. The flame-retardant mechanism refers to the addition of a flame retardant to some of the flammable precursors (such as polyester, cotton, acrylic, and acrylic) to inhibit free radicals in the combustion process; or to change the thermal decomposition process of the fibers and promote Dehydration carbonization; Some are the decomposition of the flame retardant to release the non-flammable gas to cover the surface of the fiber and act as a barrier to air.

2, flame retardant treatment method

1) Improve the thermal stability of fiber-forming polymers

2) Flame retardant modification of raw silk


Flame retardant finishing of fabrics:

1, the flame retardant mechanism

1) Cover layer theory: The flame retardant can form a glass or stable foam cover layer at high temperature, with heat insulation, oxygen barrier, prevent combustible gas from escaping outwards, and play a role in flame retardant.

2) Non-combustible gas theory: The flame retardant decomposes the non-combustible gas by heat, and the concentration of combustible gas that is decomposed by cellulose is diluted to below the combustion lower limit.

3) Endothermic theory: Flame retardant at high temperatures, endothermic reflection, reduce the temperature to prevent the spread of combustion. In addition, the fabric can be quickly transferred out of heat after finishing, causing the cellulose to reach the temperature of ignition.

4) Chemical reflection theory (catalytic dehydration theory): The flame retardant reacts with the fiber as a Lewis acid at a high temperature, so that the fiber is catalytically dehydrated and carbonized to reduce the generation of combustible gas.


Third, the flame-retardant fabric is divided into:

1. Elastic flame-retardant fabric - This kind of fabric is made of blended 95% cotton fiber and 5% spandex fiber. In addition to its excellent properties of cotton fiber, it is made elastic thanks to the addition of spandex yarn, thus making it more comfortable to wear and better anti-wrinkle. 

2. All-cotton flame-retardant fabric - The fabric is made of 100% natural fiber "cotton", which has the characteristics of breathable and breathable, comfortable to wear and soft to the touch. There are various specifications such as twill, plain, satin, and weft knitted fabrics. 

3. C/N flame-retardant fabric - The fabric is 88% cotton fiber, 12% nylon fiber blended. With good abrasion resistance, better strength, and softer handfeel, the lifespan of finished work clothes can be extended by more than 50%, and it can better prevent sparks, arcs, and metal droplets. 

4.CVC flame-retardant fabric - The fabric has more than 60% of cotton fibers, less than 40% of polyester fiber blended. The excellent properties of both cotton and polyester fibers, with good strength, good wear resistance and wrinkle resistance more cloth - good and so on.


Flame retardant fabric features:

1, excellent permanent flame retardant performance, washing and friction will not affect the flame retardant properties.

2. The safety is good. When the fiber meets the fire, it is released with low smoke and does not release toxic gas.

3, the use of conventional fibers as a carrier does not produce hazardous elements, in line with environmental requirements.

4, good thermal insulation, provide a full range of thermal protection.

5. The fabric has the moisture absorption and desorption properties of conventional fibers, and has the characteristics of soft, comfortable, breathable, warmth, and the like.

6, after finishing flame retardant is mainly used for cotton or low proportion of chemical fiber fabrics, and flame retardant fiber with a variety of chemical fiber as a carrier, give full play to the excellent performance of various types of chemical fiber.

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The use of flame-retardant fabrics:

1, industrial flame retardant protective equipment (used in petroleum, petrochemical, chemical and other industries);

2, firefighters fire fighting service, command service;

3, family, hotel decoration supplies, such as: carpets, curtains, bedding, etc.;

4, general clothing, especially children's clothing, pajamas, etc.;

5, anti-arc service;

6, space suits;

7, racing suits.


How to clean fire-retardant fabrics:

1, when washing, the water temperature should be below 30 °C, 1 kg per kg of clothing plus neutral soap or detergent without enzyme, the bath ratio is not greater than 1:40, using light washing methods, to avoid excessive friction caused by anti-static properties . 

2. After washing, it should be dried by the sun, or be air-dried at 150°C for 2 minutes, or dried at 150°C for more than 4 minutes. 

3, dry, ventilated, to avoid mechanical or chemical damage. 

4. When working clothing is not allowed to use metal accessories, when using (buttons, zippers), metal accessories must not be exposed directly when worn. 

5. When wearing overalls, it is forbidden to attach or wear any metal objects on the clothing, and it is forbidden to wear off in flammable and explosive places.


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