Flame retardant finishing process of polyester flame retardant fabric
The intumescent flame retardant for polyester flame retardant fabrics is mainly composed of phosphorus and nitrogen. When heated, a uniform layer of carbon foam can be formed on the surface, which is heat-insulated, oxygen-insulated and smoke-suppressing. It can avoid droplet phenomenon and has good flame retardancy. The research shows that the polyester fibers treated by intumescent flame retardant have good flame retardancy and anti droplet effect. Although intumescent flame retardants have been extensively studied in plastics, rubber and synthetic polymers, the flame retardant finishing of polyester fiber is still less.
The flame retardant fabric of polyester flame retardant fabric is mainly modified by flame retardant or surface modification. As one of the surface modification methods, flame retardant finishing of fabrics has the advantages of simple process and low cost. Among them, phosphorus containing flame retardants are low toxic and efficient, and are widely used in polyester fiber. Phosphorous flame retardants mainly promote the carbonization of polymers and play a role of flame retardancy in condensed phase.
The traditional intumescent flame retardant system is composed of acid source, carbon source and gas source. The acid source firstly releases inorganic acids such as phosphoric acid and pyrophosphate, which have dehydration effect, and reacts with polyols to esterify, and the whole system melts in this process; the gas source produces non-combustible gas and water vapor, which makes the melted system foam and expand; the carbon source further dehydrates and carbonizes under the action of dehydrating agent, and generates protoplasts and coke. Carbon residue makes the whole system expand and form carbon foams.
Polyester flame retardant fabrics have high strength, excellent heat resistance and chemical stability, and are widely used in home textiles and various internal decorative fabrics. However, it is easy to melt and has a great fire hazard. Therefore, it is very important to study the flame retardant technology of polyester textiles and develop flame retardant polyester textiles.
In this experiment, phosphorus-containing flame retardant and nitrogen-containing flame retardant which can produce non-combustible gases were used to form intumescent system. By proper post-treatment process, polyester fabric with good flame retardant properties was obtained, and the treated fabric maintained a good handle, and the breaking strength decreased slightly.